After Spain, the next colonial power to establish a colonial regime in Southeast Asia was the Netherlands. By the latter half of the sixteenth century, the Netherlands had survived a half-century of Spanish rule during which many thousands of Dutch citizens were subjected to the Inquisition and sentenced to death for their Protestant beliefs. When Spain attempted to invade England from the Netherlands, the British decisively defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588, and that victory gave the Dutch their independence from Spain. It also left both Spain and Portugal severely weakened and on the verge of bankruptcy. 12 With the balance of power shifting in Europe, the Netherlands was able to challenge both Portugal and Spain in Southeast Asia.
The Dutch were a nation of seafaring merchants, with commercial skills that were more advanced, at that time, than any others worldwide. To ensure success, in 1602, six Dutch chambers of commerce united seventy-six trading companies to form the Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie—VOC). The Dutch Parliament issued a charter to the VOC to act with sovereign authority to make it the instrument of Dutch colonial power.
When the Dutch first arrived in force to Southeast Asia, they captured the Portuguese enclave of Ambon in 1605 and by 1623 had decisively asserted Dutch supremacy in the Moluccas. Meanwhile, they explored for an appropriate base in Southeast Asia for their operations. Eventually, they gained approval from a local chief to build a factory at a virtually unused river port in East Java called Jakatra. In a later dispute over that agreement, the Dutch, in 1619, conquered the Jakatran Kingdom. The town was renamed Batavia to make it the center for Dutch authority in its East Indies possessions.14 With Dutch supremacy firmly established in the Moluccas and Java, the Dutch faced no rivals of comparable power. The Portuguese remained at Melaka and Timor, while Spain was fully occupied in the Philippines. To eliminate the residual Portuguese presence, the Dutch organized an assault on Melaka. Their attack began with a blockade in 1633, and intensified into siege by 1640. The next year, the Portuguese defenders at Melaka finally surrendered.
During the seventeenth century, the Dutch established a monopoly system of trade. Contracts were made with local rulers for the supply of valued products, especially spices. To address the issues of security and stability, the Dutch intervened to stop internecine conflicts in their region and began bringing the states of Java into their orbit of control. This system of rule required the use of Dutch troops to support treaty-bound rulers and periodic involvement in wars and conflicts with “rebel” factions and recalcitrant rulers. By 1772, the VOC had extended some form of control over all of Java.
Although most of the Dutch were Calvinist Christians, most of them were not militant in their religious commitments. They had experienced the appalling brutality of the Spanish Inquisition; principles of religious liberty were strongly supported in the Netherlands, and sympathy for the victims of the Inquisition extended to both Jews and Muslims. Later, these attitudes helped to shape Dutch policies. For the VOC directors, the religion of the rulers was of little importance, so long as the terms of contract agreements were met and incidences of piracy or hostile actions were kept under control. Some native states benefited from the system and were allies, while others were excluded and became the objects of surveillance and police actions. Many native rulers were willing to make agreements with the Dutch by sharing in the profits of trade and being supported by Dutch forces to protect their claims to ruler ship. However, a few rulers resisted the rules of the mercantilist system, and those who opposed Dutch rule often utilized Islam as an ideological basis for their actions. Early opposition to the Dutch presence came from the state of Bantam, with its capital in West Java and its primary domains in South Sumatra. The Dutch first intervened in 1683 to support a rival Bantam court clique in a palace revolt, and a century later Bantam was converted to a Dutch protectorate.
During the Napoleonic Wars,. France occupied the Netherlands in 1795 and appointed a French governor general for the East Indies. However, a Dutch government in exile was formed to resist that occupation, and they authorized England to expel French officials from the East Indies and to act as a trustee until Dutch authority could be restored. Accordingly, in 1811 British troops seized Batavia, forcing the surrender of French forces. The British government appointed Stamford Raffles as lieutenant governor of Java, and under his rule, the monopoly system of trade was ended and other reforms were instituted based on liberal principles of open economic competition.17 When Dutch administration returned in 1816, the Netherlands and England agreed in 1824 to redefine their respective spheres in Southeast Asia.’8 The Dutch also decided to establish full control over all the islands of Indonesia within the Dutch sphere as defined by that treaty. It took two wars with staunchly Muslim native states before that process of incorporation was completed in 1898.
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Suppose, goods sold to M. Asif Rs. 2000 are correctly recorded in the Sales Book, but erroneously debited twice in Mr. Asif Account in the ledger. For this error, the total of debit column of trial balance will be Rs. 12000 excess. More >>
The figure of opening stock if not given can be ascertained by applying gross profit percentage to sales. More >>
The Portuguese system of trade with Southeast Asia was first challenged by its larger Iberian neighbor, Spain. Having had a similar experience with centuries of Muslim rule... More >>
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The expenses that have been incurred during the current year (the services have been received during the current year) More >>