An expenditure which results in the acquisition of permanent asset which is intended to be permanently used in the business for the purpose of earning revenue is known as capital expenditure. These expenditures are ‘non-recurring’ by nature. Assets acquired by incurring these expenditures are utilized by the business for a long time and thereby they earn revenue. For example, money spent on the purchase of building, machinery, furniture etc. Take the case of machinery--machinery is permanently used for producing goods and profit is earned by selling those goods. This is not expenditure for one accounting period, machinery has long life and its benefit will be enjoyed over a long period of time. By long period of time we mean a period exceeding one accounting period.
Moreover, any expenditure which is incurred for the purpose of increasing profit earning capacity or reducing cost of production is a capital expenditure. Sometimes the expenditure even not resulting in the increase of profit earning capacity but acquires an asset comparatively permanent in nature will also be a capital expenditure.
It should be remembered that when an asset is purchased, all amounts spent up to the point till the asset is ready for use should be treated as capital expenditure. Examples are: (a): A machinery was purchased for Rs. 50,000 from Karachi. We paid carriage Rs. 1,000, octroi duty Rs. 500 to bring the machinery from Karachi t Lahore. Then we paid wages Rs. 1,000 for its installation in the factory. For all these expenditures, we should debit machinery account instead of debiting carriage A/c, octroi A/c and wages A/c. (b): Fees paid to a lawyer for drawing up the purchase deed of land. (c): Overhaul expenses of second-hand machinery etc. (d): Interest paid on loans raised to acquire a fixed asset etc.
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