As a specialized branch of sociology, industrial sociology is yet to become mature. In fact, Durkheim and Max Weber in their classical styles have made some analysis of industrial institutions. But systematic research in the field has developed only in recent decades. It gained importance about the middle of the present century. The famous experiments at the Hawthorne Works in Chicago, of the Western Electric Company, conducted by George Elton Mayo and his associates during the last twenties and in the early thirties, provided the fillip to the development of industrial sociology.
Industrial sociology gained the grounds comparatively on a wider scale in America. Various factors contributed to the development of industrial sociology in the U.S.A. The development of corporate industry, the achievement of scientific management, the unemployment of the depressed l930s, the labor legislation of the New Deal (Economic Policy), the rise of ‘human relations’, the manpower shortages and enforced restrictions of wartime, the great awakening of the trade unions, the continued emigration of the population from the American farm, the new technology and mechanization, the desire for a higher standard of living, the occasional labor strikes involving thousands of workers, the investigation of the Congress, the legislative programme of the Kennedy Administration—and other factors contributed to the growth of this branch in America.
In the beginning, in Industrial Sociology much of the work was limited to the analysis of rather restricted problems. But today industrial sociologist’s field of study is developing. It now includes the analysis of industrial institutions and organization. It also studies the relation between them. It examines the links between industrial phenomena and institutions of the wider society. Theoretically, this is correct. But practically much remains to be done. M regards many of the internal problems of industrial organizations; our systematic knowledge is still fragmentary and inadequate. In respect of the links between industrial and other institutions our knowledge is scattered.
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