Immunology is a science where very tiny particles of our body are used to detect roots of various disease and their solution and the immune scientists try to find out the medication or the related vaccination also. In other Immunohistochemistry is a diagnostic test. It uses monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies previously marked with a substance that can be seen under the microscope. The antibodies are specific to an antigen that the test is able to detect. These antibodies have high affinity to their antigens so the test has high specificity, not necessarily high sensitivity which depends on other factors. Antibodies are extremely helpful in neurogenesis tests. This is not limited to neonatal development. It has long been known that the adult mammalian brain is able to generate new neurons, though the identification of specific signaling and transcription proteins has happened more recently. Biotechnology plants carry a comprehensive range of antibodies to these proteins in the antibody collection. A Polyclonal Antibody is actually a mixture of antibodies from lots of different B cells. They vary in how well they recognize the substance (specificity). Some of these antibodies will also recognize other substances with a similar structure. A monoclonal antibody originates from one parent cell so all the molecules are identical. It is highly specific for one particular structure on the substance of interest. So the scientists are bound to differentiate the specific antibodies used for specific research.
How these antibodies becomes shield on the diseases?
Polyclonal antibodies are such antibodies which are made by immunization to mammals. When we become infected by foreign cells such as bacteria or viruses or cancer cells one very important means of defense that we can utilize is to produce antibodies. All cells have proteins on their surfaces known as antigens. When foreign cells enter our bodies the antigens are recognized as foreign by our immune system and B Lymphocytes are prompted to produce antibodies. Once antibodies are formed they act by attaching and binding to the antigens on the surface of the invading cell. This ultimately leads to the destruction of the cell and the removal of the infection or cancer cells. Antibodies are a very powerful weapon in our fight against disease.
Antibodies on Vaccine Research
There are two significant faces of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies that the scientists can exploit in the treatment of disease. One is that antibodies are totally specific. For example if they contract an infection such as rubella then the production will be an antibody specifically targeted to the rubella virus. The second characteristic is that antibodies remain in our bodies after an infection has been cleared thereby conferring protection into the future against that disease. It is these characteristics that have led to the development of vaccine technology. Pharmaceutical companies take compulsivebacteria and treat them so that they cannot cause infection. These inactive organisms make up the main component of a vaccine. When a vaccine is administered our immune system distinguishes the antigen, antibody is produced and we become immune to future infection.
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