Orientation involves the introduction of new employees to the enterprise its functions, tasks and people. Large firms usually have a formal orientation program, which explains these features of the company: history, products and services, general policies and practices, requirements for confidentiality and secrecy, safety and other regulation.
Having selected the most suitable personnel for various activities in the organization, the management should make necessary arrangements for their training and development. This is because the efficiency of an organization depends directly on how capable its’ personnel are and the capability of personnel depends on their ability to work and the type of training they receive.
According to Edwin B. Flippo
‘Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job.”
Training is a continuous and never-ending process as it is mainly job oriented and offered to both new and old employees.
Methods or Approaches To Managerial Training
Categorizing broadly, there are two training method.
1) On the job training. 2) Off the job training.
1) ON THE JOB TRAINING:
This is the most popular method of training people. Workers learn while working on the job, and supervisors instruct or guide regarding new work systems. Workers learn ‘by observing and working with senior workers. It develops the worker in his present job. Unskilled and semiskilled workers can be trained in this method effectively. There are various method of getting on-the job training.
Learning by experience is the oldest method. In fact, after the Industrial Revolution, many people thought that experience alone could take a worker to higher positions. But that may not be sufficient: it has to be aided properly by other methods also.
In this method, a supervisor teaches job-knowledge and skills to the worker. A coach is entrusted with the responsibility of training workers while they are on the job. It provides guidance to the worker.
c) Understanding program:
This is a training program designed to prepare a subordinate to fill the vacancy caused by death, retirement, resignation, promotion or transfer of the superior. A trainee will work as an understudy or assistant of a supervisor. Training is given in the real work situation, and helps in imparting important skills to the worker.
d) Job rotation:
To prepare a worker to take up different responsibilities, he may be shifted from job to job. But is should be carefully planned and arranged in suitable order.
e) Temporary promotions:
If a senior person goes on leave, a trainee may be asked to be in charge, till that place is vacant. This temporary promotion provides authority and experience for the trainee. Institutions can develop their trainees by taking such opportunities.
If a trainee is made a member of a committee of the enterprise, he can participate in decision- making tasks. He can gain much from the company of experienced managers, and interaction with them will benefit him.
2. OFF THE JOB TRAINING:
a) Vestibule training:
Before entering the main hail of a house, one has to pass through a vestibule. Likewise, before taking up the actual task, which will have all the qualities of a real work environment, specialists train the workers to get accustomed to their work. But it s a very expensive method of training people.
b) The lecture method or class-room training:
The lecture method is the most economical method of training. While hearing a lecture, a trainee can also take notes as an aid to learning. For large groups, it is most effective but the problem is that it cannot provide practical work situations. Sometimes, lectures can also be boring.
Booklets and circulars:
Free and attractive booklets can motivate trainees to go through them in detail. They can re-read them if they are attractive and interesting. The company’s history, growth, future plans, performance standards, technical details of the functioning, and machine data can be provided in such literature, but people often may not read them at all, or they may just glance through them. If there are educated people with a preference for reading, this can be a better way of training.
d) Conferences, programs and seminars:
These are the best ways of improving communications skills and developing the personality of trainees and the best method to train fresh managers, as they are exposed to group discussions, questions and answer sessions, etc. A detailed analysis of a specific problem may be made and there may be exchange of ideas in conferences. Case studies may be conducted in seminars, but they must be well planned.
This is a method in which trainees project themselves in the roles of others and similar interpersonal situations are created. Each trainee enacts the role of a supervisor and the other of a worker. It improves the skill of human relations skills and increasing sensitivity for the feelings of others. It helps in developing insight. Interpersonal skills, emotional control and sensitivity to feelings are central to role-playing.
f) Business Games:
These are extensive training programs. In the defense forces, they have a practice of training the staff through war-games techniques. Likewise, business games simulate a real situation where groups participate in decision-making and problem solving. It involves different teams. One after another, all the teams take decisions on product lines, expansion, pricing and advertising policy. After the game, all the decisions of different teams are fed in to computer, which is programmed to give a real market trend. The computer gives indications on the decision-results of the different teams. The team which shows the largest profit is declared the winner. In business games, participants have a lot of emotional involvement, and deeper understanding of decision-making techniques.
g) Motion Pictures:
Large companies can afford to have their own film projectors and even produce their own films, or borrow films from other companies. Film teaching has an immediate impact on trainees. It has attention-getting value. The company’s policies, philosophy, values, history, growth, diversification, key functional areas and technology can be shown in motion pictures. Films have the great advantage of visual training.
h) The Case Method:
This method was first developed at Harvard school of Business. Its special feature is that the teacher or trainer is not the source of knowledge: a participative attitude and problem analysis teach the trainee. In the profession of law, cases are used as a basis for arguments. The trainee has to use the facts effectively and take decisions on his own. The case method is very useful in-group problem solving.
i) The In-basket:
In this a trainee is given an emergency problem, like a rush situation, which limited information. In his “basket” or “tray” a list of alternatives will be available. He has to dispose of that problem either by delegation or meeting, delaying action, and so on. This method can train the executive to take decisions under pressure, or to manage crises. It can also develop insight.
j) T-Group Training:
T-group refers to training group. This training involves a small group milled a T-group. EL has no planned structure. Sensitivity refers to the sensitivity to self and to relationship with others. It is basically emotional rather than conceptual. Chris Argyris states that a group experience is design to provide the maximum possible opportunity for individual to expose their behavior, give and receive feedback, experiment with new behavior and develop awareness of self and others. In a small unprogrammed group of 10 to 15 people, each member is encouraged to have a dialogue with the group, and in the process to know about himself and others in a non-structured environment. After this, an individual can know how other see him or how he affects them. The basic assumption of this method is that one cannot understand others until he understands himself.
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