The important features of morale are as follows.
1. It is an attitude of an employee towards the organization.
2. 11 is the sum total of satisfaction expressed by an employee ‘by virtue of his job and member of the work team.
3. It is social or group oriented and ii emphasizes the feeling of a team as a whole.
4. It is a group attitude towards the persistence, determination, etc.
MORALE AND PRODUCTIVITY:
It is usually assumed that there is a positive relationship between morale and productivity. However, the research studies conducted so far do not unanimously support this assumption.
D. Katz and II. Hyman concluded in their study that morale varies in the same enterprise and it is correlated with productivity and that better morale leads to better productivity and vice versa. In another study, D. Katz and his associates found that only one dimension of morale, i.e., pride in work group was significantly correlated with productivity. Frederick Herzberg, having gone through the result for 24 studies on the effects of morale on productivity, found conflicting facts:
(i) In majority of cases, high morale was related to high productivity;
(ii) In some cases, morale and productivity were not related, and
(iii) In minority cases, high morale was related to low productivity. It seems that the relationship between morale and productivity is not absolute.
However, studies confirm that attitudes form a significant determinant of employee output. However, there are several other factors than attitudes which influence productivity. It appears that morale improves productivity under certain conditions, especially where creativity or innovation influences the product.
FACTORS AFFECTING MORALE:
The following factors influence morale:
1. General worker attitude toward company, supervisor and fellow workers.
2. The level of satisfaction with job standards.
3. The level of consideration the supervisor shows with his subordinates.
4. The work load and the work pressure level.
5. The level of worker pride in the company and its activities.
6. The level of worker satisfaction with salaries.
7. The treatment of individuals by management.
8. Worker reactions to the formal communication network in organization.
9. Intrinsic job satisfaction level of the workers.
10 Worker satisfaction with the progress and opportunities for further development.
BUILDING HIGH MORALE
Morale is a changing mental phenomenon. It is a perpetual process which cannot be stopped even for a moment. Morale may be built either on individual basis or on group basis. Group morale is generally affected by group thinking and behavior. Group morale building is always good as it helps built up the individual morale too. The following factors help boost morale in an organization.
1. Ideal Wage Structure: A sound wage structure provides greater financial satisfaction to workers. It encourages them to boost productivity. The attendance is also more regular.
2. Security A consistent personnel policy that ensures security of income and employment to competent employees.
3. Two-Way Communication: The workers should be allowed to communicate with their boss and satisfy themselves about their doubts.
4. Sound Promotion Policy: The management should pursue a sound promotion policy to create a feeling among the employees that the ambitions and talented persons will be rewarded by promotion.
5. Installation of a Grievances Cell: The management should address the worker’s grievances and make efforts to eliminate them
6. Incentive System: The management should introduce a proper incentive system of monetary and non-monetary rewards in order to motivate employees.
7. Delegation of Authority: Delegation of authority to different levels in the organization gives employees a sense of importance. It also makes them responsible and raises their motivation.
8. Welfare Measures: The provision of welfare amenities like healthy recreation, good housing, proper medical facilities and so on helps in increasing the morale of the employees.
9. Worker’s Participation: Workers should be allowed to participate in management. This would make the workers feel that they stand to share the prosperity of the company.