SOURCES OF BANK FUNDS
A bank is a business firm. Its main aim is to earn profit. In order to achieve this objective it provides services to the customers. It offers a variety of interest bearing obligations to the public. These obligations are the sources of funds for the bank and are shown on the liability side of the balance sheet of a commercial bank. The main sources which supply funds to a bank are as follows:
A Bank’s Own Funds.
B Borrowed Funds.
1. Bank’s own funds. Bank’s own funds are mainly of three types; (a) Paid up capital, (b) Reserve fund and (C) Portion of undistributed profit.
(A) Banks Own Funds.
Bank’s own paid up capital. The amount with which a banking company is registered is called nominal or authorized capital. It is the maximum amount of capital which is mentioned in the capital clause of the memorandum of association of the company. Capital is further divided into (i) paid up capital and (ii) subscribed capital. The banks in Pakistan raise authorized capital by issuing ordinary shares of Rs. 10 each which are fully paid up.
2. Reserve fund. Reserve is another source of fund which is maintained by all commercial banks. At the time of declaring dividend, a certain portion of the profit is transferred to the reserve fund. This reserve belongs to the .shareholders and at the time of liquidation, the Shareholders are entitled to these reserves along with the capital.
The main purpose of setting aside part of profit is to meet unforeseen expenses of the bank. The Banking Companies Ordinance has made it obligatory (binding) for every banking company incorporated in Pakistan to create a reserve fund.
3. Profit. Profit is another source to a bank for the purpose of business. Profits signify the credit balance of the profit and loss account which has not been distributed. The accumulated profits over the years increase the working capital of the bank and strengthens its financial position.
(B) Borrowed Funds.
The borrowed capital is a major and an important source of fund for any banking business. It mainly comes from deposits which are accepted on varying terms in different accounts.
Bank’s borrowing is mostly in the form of deposits. Bank collects three kinds of deposits from its customers (1) current or demand deposits (2) saving deposits and (3) fixed or time deposits. The larger the deposits of bank, the larger will be its (use) fund for employment and so higher are its profit.
1. Borrowing from central bank. The commercial banks in times of emergency borrow loans from the central bank of the country. The central bank extends help as and when financial help is required by the commercial banks.
2. Other sources. Bank also raise funds by issuing bonds, debentures, cash certificates etc. etc. Though it is not common but is a dependable source of borrowing.
3. Deposits. Public deposits are a powerful source of funds to a bank. There are’ three types of bank deposits (i) current deposits (ii) saving deposits and (iii) time deposits. Due to the spread of literacy, banking habits and growth in the volume of business operations, there is a marked increase in deposit money with banks.